His explorations in the 1850s focused public attention on Central Africa, and his reports on the slave trade stimulated missionary activity.In 1858, after visiting Mzilikaze, Robert Moffat, Livingstone's father-in-law, established Inyati Mission, the first permanent European settlement in what is now Zimbabwe.The BSAC sent a group of settlers with a force of European police into Mashonaland, where they founded the town of Salisbury (now Harare).
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Later acts firmly entrenched the policy of dividing land on a racial basis.
In 1953, the Central African Federation was formed, consisting of the three British territories of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), Nyasaland (now Malawi), and Southern Rhodesia, with each territory retaining its original constitutional status.
With the defeat of the Ndebele and the Shona between 18, Europeans were guaranteed unimpeded settlement. Under BSAC administration, British settlement continued, but conflicts arose between the settlers and the company.
In 1923, Southern Rhodesia was annexed to the crown; its African inhabitants thereby became British subjects, and the colony received its basic constitution.
Evidence of Stone Age cultures dating back 100,000 years has been found, and it is thought that the San people, now living mostly in the Kalahari Desert, are the descendants of Zimbabwe's original inhabitants.