Therefore, despite some conceptual and experiential overlap, the various forms of abuse also are separable conceptually and experientially.
Moreover, for better or worse, they are often treated separately by the research community, although that practice is changing as research on these topics matures and progresses.
It is frequently the case that two or more types of abuse are present in the same relationship.
Emotional abuse often precedes, occurs with, and/or follows physical or sexual abuse in relationships (Koss et al., 1994; Stets, 1991; Tolman, 1992; Walker, 1984).
This is behavior that is intended, , to cause temporary physical pain to the victim, and includes relatively "minor" acts like slapping with an open hand and severe acts of violence that lead to injury and/or death. This type of behavior also can be directed toward people with whom the perpetrator has not been romantically involved and can involve motives other than sexual or "amorous" ones -- notably anger, hostility, paranoia, and delusion. .knowingly and repeatedly following, harassing, or threatening. 667); "unsolicited and unwelcome behavior [that is] initiated by the defendant against the complainant, [that is] at minimum alarming, annoying, or harassing, [and that involves] two or more incidents of such behavior.