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Using 1000 human samples representing current racial distributions, they established a frequency distribution for the 10 haplogroups.
They were able to trace a common African heritage and suggest some population subdivisions, gene flow episodes and colonization events.
Underhill's genetic study of the Y-chromosome shows further that populations not only trace their ancestry to Africa, but that the descendants replaced archaic human Y chromosomes in Eurasia (Underhill, 2000).
The last common ancestor of all non-African human Y-chromosomes, is estimated to be about 40,000 years (31,000-79,000) ago.
This is supported by faunal evidence, showing the presence of modern humans and east African animal species in the Middle East at this time (Underhill, et al. Outside of Africa, there is evidence for the early formation of a non-African grouping, represented today by the Australians, New Guineans, southeast Asians, Japanese and central Asians.