It became part of the Despotate of Epirus following the Fourth Crusade.
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In the period between the 18th and 19th centuries, the city was a major center of the modern Greek Enlightenment.
Ioannina was ceded to Greece in 1913 following the Balkan Wars.
The identification of the site with one of the ancient cities of Epirus has not yet been possible. Tsoures dated the Byzantine city walls and the northeastern citadel of the Ioannina Castle to the 10th century, with additions in the late 11th century, including the south-eastern citadel, traditionally ascribed to the short-lived occupation of the city by the Normans under the leadership of Bohemond of Taranto in 1082.
In the treaty of partition of the Byzantine lands after the Fourth Crusade, Ioannina was promised to the Venetians, but in the event, it became part of the new state of Epirus, founded by Michael I Komnenos Doukas.
He settled there noble Byzantine families who fled Constantinople and other parts of the Empire that fell to the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade.